Recently, the "crisis of the liberal International order" is widely discussed. Rather than being the beneficiary of a liberal order led by the United States, Japan seems to be "stepping up" and acting proactively to save that order and keep the United States from withdrawing from it altogether. But what are the challenges ahead for Japan? How may Japan's leadership differ from that of the United States? In this talk, Professor Hikotani will examine Japan’s efforts so far, primarily focusing on recent developments in the Indo-Pacific region, as well as changes in the domestic policy making process in Japan.